Membrane means shell. The membrane has a selective permeability that acts as a barrier. Another application is to remove the ambiguity of the membrane processes. In general, any type of thin film or membrane, permeable or semipermeable, is called the plasma membrane in medicine, microbiology, cellular physiology, and biochemistry. The membrane filter technique is used for the separation of solutions or mixtures of gases, which can have various applications depending on the membrane properties, such as strength, support shielding. Follow us on to find out more about different branches such as membrane filter technique ppt, membrane filtration apparatus and objective of mf technique.
What are the advantages of membrane filter technique?
First of all, we need to explain a little about the membrane technique. The membrane is defined as a phase through which components of the feed selectively pass. In other words, the membrane operates in a phase that separates the feed components at different speeds. In this method, there is usually no phase change and the products can be merged together. In the membrane technique, a portion of the feed that passes through the membrane is called a seepage and a portion that cannot pass through the membrane is called a retention, which can be considered as a by-product for the purpose of separation. In general, membrane methods are highly effective when the concentration of substances is low. The advantages of this method can be said to be that there are many improvements in the science and technology of separation systems every day. One of the most important goals is high efficiency and low energy consumption. Distillation and electrodialysis are the types of separation methods. The membrane is a permeable barrier between the two phases that selectively allows the passage of some components. Membranes are widely used in many industries today because of the way they are separated.
What is filter membrane made up of?
Filter membranes consist of several types of genera, some of which are:
- Organic Membranes (Polymer)
- Ceramic membranes
- Liquid membranes
- Metal Membranes
Each has its own function and is used for specific purposes. For example, if we want to refer to some applications of the membrane, we can name the following:
- Production of oxygen-rich air
- Removing water vapor from natural gas and other gas streams
- Hydrogen recovery from ammonia production unit exhaust gases
- Production of artificial organs such as kidney in medicine
- Water purification and some other applications
Also the driving force required in membrane processes can be in the form of concentration, pressure, temperature and electric potential. The simplest types of membranes are based on particle size differences that are similar to filters but the membranes differ with the filters in terms of pore size and size distribution as well as flow. Membrane efficiency is determined by two parameters, including membrane discharge and membrane selectivity.
Bacteriological analysis of water using membrane filtration
Now we want to talk about the membrane filtration unit. Membrane processes with advantages such as reduced energy consumption due to phase change, low volume and no need for high space, variation in shape and size, low pressure drop and high mass transfer, high separation efficiency for dilute solutions, low need for additives and solvents, the ease of design of membranes and their ease of use on industrial scales, as well as being environmentally friendly, have been distinguished from other separation methods. However, this method has disadvantages such as membrane polarization and clogging, short membrane lifespan, selectivity and low membrane discharge and high construction cost. Because of its wide range of applications and the ease of recognition and use of membranes, it seems necessary to classify these membranes according to different criteria.
- Division based on the mechanism of separation
- Division by membrane sex
Below we will explain more about these two categories.
Different uses of membrane filters in industries
As described in the preceding paragraphs, this practice has a variety of applications in the industry, including several examples. The process of membrane separation, given the fact that in recent decades has focused on saving energy consumption in industries, has also gained a prominent place in chemical engineering. In separation processes, the incentive to design processes is reinforced to avoid the formation of a second phase of separation as much as possible, thereby significantly saving energy consumption. As such, attention is focused on a group of processes that perform separation without phase change. Today the membrane separation process has found many applications in various industries such as oil, gas and petrochemical. In this process, membranes are used to isolate by crossing some of the food molecules and retaining other molecules. For industrial scale use, these membranes are used in special packages called modulus.
Membrane Filter Techniques in microbiology
But regarding the disadvantages of filtration process it can be said that in general, depending on the physical size of the contaminants, different membranes are used in water treatment processes. Figure 3 shows a list of the types of anisotropic membranes used in the field of water treatment. As can be seen, different membranes can be used depending on what analyte and to what extent it is to be removed from the aqueous medium. Ultrafiltration and microfiltration methods using membranes have a similar process, and in both of them, the separation mechanism is “screening of soluble suspended particles using membrane cavities”. The average size of cavities in microfiltration membranes is often larger (approximately 0.1 to 5 micrometers) and can filter out particulate matter, cotton, and cellular materials such as red blood cells and bacteria from 0.1 to 10 micrometers.
Evaluation and implementation of a membrane filter method
In particular, given the high risk of investment, one of the major obstacles to industrialization and mass production of membranes is that investment depends on the existence of domestic markets. The use of membranes in some separation processes such as large-scale water desalination may have an economic justification for investment in this area. This technology in some areas of the world is still in the laboratory scale and has not reached the industrial stage, in the field of process technology in the fields of treatment of petroleum effluents, sweetening of sour gases and improving the quality of solvents and cuttings. Oil is being used with membranes.
Best membrane filters in bulk buying guide
We have tried to give you some useful information in this article. Finding out more in this area requires further research. Membrane separation processes have received industrial applications since the 1960s, some of which are less than 25 years old, such as gas separation by the membrane. During this time, these processes have gained a variety of applications in emerging industries and have seen significant growth in the sales market. This trend, which promises a bright future for the technology processes, is mainly due to the specific advantages of the technology processes over other classical methods such as solvent adsorption, adsorption, cryogenic processes, and so on.